文章摘要
蒋美华ꎬ刘皓青.新中国 70 年女性职业变动研究[J].西昌学院学报(社会科学版),2021,33(1):68-75.
新中国 70 年女性职业变动研究
A Study on Women′s Career Changes in China in the Past 70 Years
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 新中国 70 年ꎻ女性ꎻ职业变动研究
英文关键词: the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People′s Republic of Chinaꎻ femaleꎻ career change
基金项目:2019 年度教育部人文社会科学研究一般项目(19YJA840005)?2020 年度国家社会科学基金项目(20BSH039)?
作者单位
蒋美华ꎬ刘皓青 郑州大学政治与公共管理学院ꎬ河南 郑州 450001 
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中文摘要:
      新中国成立70周年以来,社会各项事业蓬勃发展,越来越多的女性走向工作岗位,在社会中发挥着重要作用。新中国成立至今,女性在不同时期的职业变动具有显著差别,整体呈现以下特征:职业变动觉悟提升变,动能力增强,从事职业类型日趋高级化,就业结构日趋合理,职业变动趋向于专业化与平等化,变动环境日益优化,职业变动融合了自由流动与结构流动,整体呈现向上变动的趋势;职业变动的区域范围不断扩大,区域流向呈现多元化。这一切积极的转变得益于我国政策的改革与支持、经济制度与结构的优化升级、社会进步与社会观念的转化、女性独立能力与受教育水平的提升。在此过程中,女性职业变动受多重因素的影响,仍然存在着问题,在优化女性职业变动路径中可以从以下几个方面努力:清除女性职业变动中的不平等因素,关注女性职业变动的结构分布,充分发挥社会、社区和家庭的职能,合理规划职业生涯。
英文摘要:
      During the 70 years since the founding of the People′s Republic of Chinaꎬ various social undertakings have developed vigorouslyꎬ and more and more women have moved from domesticity to job positions and playing an important role in society. From that time onꎬ women′s career changes have been significantly different in various periodsꎬ and the overall characteristics are as follows: the awareness of career changes increases and the ability to change growsꎻ the types of occupations become more sophisticated and the employment structure more reasonableꎻ career changes tend to be more professional and undiscriminatedꎻ the environment is increasingly optimizedꎻ The occupational change combines the free flow with the structural flow and presents the upward trend as a whole. The regional scope of occupational change is expandingꎬand the regional flow direction is diversified.All these positive changes benefit from the reform and support of our national policiesꎬ the optimizing and upgrading of economic systems and structures evolution of social concepts and social progressꎬ and the improvement of women′s independence and education. In this processꎬ women′s career changes have been affected by multiple factors with many problems. In optimizing the development of women′s career changesꎬ efforts can be made in the following aspects: removing inequality in women′s career changesꎻ paying adequate attention to the structure of women′s career changeꎻ giving full play to the functions of societyꎬ family and communityꎻ and making scientific career plans.
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